Phytoplasmas are bacteria that belong to the Class Mollicutes (See Figure 1 below)

Figure 1.


  • Are transmitted by insect vectors that feed from plant phloem sieve cells (Figure 2)
  • Colonize plants and insects
  • Invade multiple insect tissues
  • Reside within the cytoplasm of plant phloem sieve cells (Figure 2)
  • Secrete multiple effectors that unload from the phloem (Figures 2)
Figure 2

Phytoplasma secrete effectors that:

Figure 3