Primary cell walls are deposited and remodeled during cell division and expansion. Secondary cell walls are deposited in specialized cells after the expansion phase. It is presently unknown whether and how these processes are interrelated. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MUR10 gene is required for normal primary cell wall carbohydrate composition in mature leaves as well as for normal plant growth, hypocotyl strength, and fertility. The overall sugar composition of young mur10seedlings is not significantly altered; however, the relative proportion of pectin side chains is shifted toward an increase in 1 → 5-α-arabinan relative to 1 → 4-β-galactan. mur10 seedlings display reduced fucogalactosylation of tightly cell wall-bound xyloglucan. Expression levels of genes encoding either nucleotide sugar interconversion enzymes or glycosyl transferases, known to be involved in primary and secondary cell wall biosynthesis, are generally unaffected; however, the CesA7 transcript is specifically suppressed in the mur10-1 allele. The MUR10 locus is identical with the CesA7 gene, which encodes a cellulose catalytic subunit previously thought to be specifically involved in secondary cell wall formation. The xylem vessels in young mur10 hypocotyls are collapsed and their birefringence is lost. Moreover, a fucogalactosylated xyloglucan epitope is reduced and a 1 → 5-α-arabinan epitope increased in every cell type in mur10 hypocotyls, including cells that do not deposit secondary walls. mur10 also displays altered distribution of an arabinogalactan-protein epitope previously associated with xylem differentiation and secondary wall thickening. This work indicates the existence of a mechanism that senses secondary cell wall integrity and controls biosynthesis or structural remodeling of primary cell walls and cellular differentiation.