Allosteric regulation of the partitioning of glucose-1-phosphate between glycogen and trehalose biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogenic prokaryote adapted to survive in hostile environments. In this organism and other Gram-positive actinobacteria, the metabolic pathways of glycogen and trehalose are interconnected. Results: In this work we show the production, purification and characterization of recombinant enzymes involved in the partitioning of glucose-1-phosphate between glycogen and trehalose in M. tuberculosis H37Rv, namely: ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, glycogen synthase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and trehalose 6-phosphate synthase. The substrate specificity, kinetic parameters and allosteric regulation of each enzyme were determined. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was highly specific for ADP-glucose while trehalose-6-phosphate synthase used not only ADP-glucose but also UDP-glucose, albeit to a lesser extent. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was allosterically activated primarily by phosphoenolpyruvate and glucose-6-phosphate, while the activity of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase was increased up to 2-fold by fructose-6-phosphate. None of the other two enzymes tested exhibited allosteric regulation. Conclusions: Results give information about how the glucose-1-phosphate/ADP-glucose node is controlled after kinetic and regulatory properties of key enzymes for mycobacteria metabolism.General significance: This work increases our understanding of oligo and polysaccharides metabolism in M. tuberculosis and reinforces the importance of the interconnection between glycogen and trehalose biosynthesis in this human pathogen.