Whole genome resequencing and comparative genome analysis of three Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici pathotypes prevalent in India.

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Stripe rust disease of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, (Pst) is one of the most serious diseases of wheat worldwide. In India, virulent stripe rust races have been constantly evolving in the North-Western Plains Zone leading to the failure of some of the most widely grown resistant varieties in the region. With the goal of studying the recent evolution of virulent races in this region, we conducted whole-genome re-sequencing of three prevalent Indian Pst pathotypes Pst46S119, Pst78S84 and Pst110S119. We assembled 58.62, 58.33 and 55.78 Mb of Pst110S119, Pst46S119 and Pst78S84 genome, respectively and found that pathotypes were highly heterozygous. Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated the recent evolution of pathotypes Pst110S119 and Pst78S84 from Pst46S119. Pathogenicity-related genes classes (CAZyme, proteases, effectors, and secretome proteins) were identified and found to be under positive selection. Higher rate of gene families expansion were also observed in the three pathotypes. A strong association between the effector genes and transposable elements may be the source of the rapid evolution of these strains. Phylogenetic analysis differentiated the Indian races in this study from other known United States, European, African, and Asian races. Diagnostic markers developed for the identification of three Pst pathotypes will help tracking of yellow rust at farmers field and strategizing resistance gene deployment.