Wheat in vivo RNA structure landscape reveals a prevalent role of RNA structure in modulating translational subgenome expression asymmetry.

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Polyploidy, especially allopolyploidy, which entails merging divergent genomes via hybridization and whole-genome duplication (WGD), is a major route to speciation in plants. The duplication among the parental genomes (subgenomes) often leads to one subgenome becoming dominant over the other(s), resulting in subgenome asymmetry in gene content and expression. Polyploid wheats are allopolyploids with most genes present in two (tetraploid) or three (hexaploid) functional copies, which commonly show subgenome expression asymmetry. It is unknown whether a similar subgenome asymmetry exists during translation. We aim to address this key biological question and explore the major contributing factors to subgenome translation asymmetry.