Warhead biosynthesis and the origin of structural diversity in hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors.

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Metalloproteinase inhibitors often feature hydroxamate moieties to facilitate the chelation of metal ions in the catalytic center of target enzymes. Actinonin and matlystatins are  potent metalloproteinase inhibitors that comprise rare N-hydroxy-2-pentyl-succinamic acid warheads. Here we report the identification and characterization of their biosynthetic pathways. By gene cluster comparison and a combination of precursor feeding studies, heterologous pathway expression and gene deletion experiments we are able to show that the N-hydroxy-alkyl-succinamic acid warhead is generated by an unprecedented variation of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Moreover, we present evidence that the remarkable structural diversity of matlystatin congeners originates from the activity of a decarboxylase-dehydrogenase enzyme with high similarity to enzymes that form epoxyketones. We further exploit this mechanism to direct the biosynthesis of non-natural matlystatin derivatives. Our work paves the way for follow-up studies on these fascinating pathways and allows the identification of new protease inhibitors by genome mining.