The Wheat GENIE3 Network Provides Biologically-Relevant Information in Polyploid Wheat.

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Gene regulatory networks are powerful tools which facilitate hypothesis generation and candidate gene discovery. However, the extent to which the network predictions are biologically relevant is often unclear. Recently a GENIE3 network which predicted targets of wheat transcription factors was produced. Here we used an independent RNA-Seq dataset to test the predictions of the wheat GENIE3 network for the senescence-regulating transcription factor NAM-A1 (TraesCS6A02G108300). We re-analysed the RNA-Seq data against the RefSeqv1.0 genome and identified a set of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the wild-type and nam-a1 mutant which recapitulated the known role of NAM-A1 in senescence and nutrient remobilisation. We found that the GENIE3-predicted target genes of NAM-A1 overlap significantly with the DEGs, more than would be expected by chance. Based on high levels of overlap between GENIE3-predicted target genes and the DEGs, we identified candidate senescence regulators. We then explored genome-wide trends in the network related to polyploidy and found that only homoeologous transcription factors are likely to share predicted targets in common. However, homoeologs which vary in expression levels across tissues are less likely to share predicted targets than those that do not, suggesting that they may be more likely to act in distinct pathways. This work demonstrates that the wheat GENIE3 network can provide biologically-relevant predictions of transcription factor targets, which can be used for candidate gene prediction and for global analyses of transcription factor function. The GENIE3 network has now been integrated into the KnetMiner web application, facilitating its use in future studies.