The Ubiquitin Receptors DA1, DAR1, and DAR2 Redundantly Regulate Endoreduplication by Modulating the Stability of TCP14/15 in Arabidopsis.

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Organ growth involves the coordination of cell proliferation and cell growth with differentiation. Endoreduplication is correlated with the onset of cell differentiation and with cell and organ size, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking cell and organ growth with endoreduplication. We have previously demonstrated that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 influences organ growth by restricting cell proliferation. Here, we show that DA1 and its close family members DAR1 and DAR2 are redundantly required for endoreduplication during leaf development. DA1, DAR1, and DAR2 physically interact with the transcription factors TCP14 and TCP15, which repress endoreduplication by directly regulating the expression of cell-cycle genes. We also show that DA1, DAR1, and DAR2 modulate the stability of TCP14 and TCP15 proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses demonstrate that DA1, DAR1, and DAR2 function in a common pathway with TCP14/15 to regulate endoreduplication. Thus, our findings define an important genetic and molecular mechanism involving the ubiquitin receptors DA1, DAR1, and DAR2 and the transcription factors TCP14 and TCP15 that links endoreduplication with cell and organ growth.