Correct circadian regulation increases plant productivity, and photosynthesis is circadian-regulated. Here, we discuss the regulatory basis for the circadian control of photosynthesis. We discuss candidate mechanisms underpinning circadian oscillations of light harvesting and consider how the circadian clock modulates CO2 fixation by Rubisco. We show that new techniques may provide a platform to better understand the signalling pathways that couple the circadian clock with the photosynthetic apparatus. Finally, we discuss how understanding circadian regulation in model systems is underpinning research into the impact of circadian regulation in crop species.