Teicoplanin biosynthesis: unraveling the interplay of structural, regulatory, and resistance genes.

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Teicoplanin (Tcp) is a clinically relevant glycopeptide antibiotic (GPA) that is produced by the actinobacterium Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. Tcp is a front-line therapy for treating severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens in adults and infants. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of how Tcp is produced by A. teichomyceticus by describing Tcp biosynthesis, regulation, and resistance. We summarize the knowledge gained from in vivo and in vitro studies to provide an integrated model of teicoplanin biosynthesis. Then, we discuss genetic and nutritional factors that contribute to the regulation of teicoplanin biosynthesis, focusing on those that have been successfully applied for improving teicoplanin production. A current view on teicoplanin self-resistance mechanisms in A. teichomyceticus is given, and we compare the Tcp biosynthetic gene cluster with other glycopeptide gene clusters from actinoplanetes and from unidentified isolates/metagenomics samples. Finally, we provide an outlook for further directions in studying Tcp biosynthesis and regulation.