Burkholderia pseudomallei and its close relative B. mallei are human pathogens that are classified as Tier 1 bio-threat agents. Both organisms have previously been shown to constitutively produce a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that is both a virulence determinant and protective antigen. Extraction and purification of CPS for use as a potential vaccine candidate requires containment level 3 laboratories which is expensive and time-consuming. B. thailandensis strain E555 is closely related to B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, but is non-pathogenic to humans and based on immunological cross-reactivity has previously been shown to express a B. pseudomallei-like CPS. In this study, capsular polysaccharide isolated from an O-antigen deficient strain of B. thailandensis E555 was identified by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy as -3-)-2-O-acetyl-6-deoxy-ß-d-manno-heptopyranose-(-1, and identical to that produced by B. pseudomallei. This was further substantiated by anti-CPS monoclonal antibody binding. In connection with the production of CPS fragments for use in glycoconjugate vaccines, we set out to assess the importance or otherwise of the CPS 2-OAc groups in immune protection. To this end conjugates of the native and de-O-acetylated CPS with the Hc fragment of tetanus toxin (TetHc) were used as vaccines in a mouse model of melioidosis. The level of protection provided by deacetylated CPS was significantly lower than that from native, acetylated CPS. In addition, sera from mice vaccinated with the deacetylated CPS conjugate did not recognise native CPS. This suggests that CPS extracted from B. thailandensis can be used as antigen and that the acetyl group is essential for protection.