RNA structures are essential to support RNA functions and regulation in various biological processes. Recently, a range of novel technologies have been developed to decode genome-wide RNA structures and novel modes of functionality across a wide range of species. In this review, we summarize key strategies for probing the RNA structurome and discuss the pros and cons of representative technologies. In particular, these new technologies have been applied to dissect the structural landscape of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome. We also summarize the functionalities of RNA structures discovered in different regulatory layers-including RNA processing, transport, localization, and mRNA translation-across viruses, bacteria, animals, and plants. We review many versatile RNA structural elements in the context of different physiological and pathological processes (e.g., cell differentiation, stress response, and viral replication). Finally, we discuss future prospects for RNA structural studies to map the RNA structurome at higher resolution and at the single-molecule and single-cell level, and to decipher novel modes of RNA structures and functions for innovative applications.