Promoter profiling of Arabidopsis amino acid transporters: clues for improving crops.

The review describes the importance of amino acid transporters in plant growth, development, stress tolerance, and productivity. The promoter analysis provides valuable insights into their functionality leading to agricultural benefits. Arabidopsis thaliana genome is speculated to possess more than 100 amino acid transporter genes. This large number suggests the functional significance of amino acid transporters in plant growth and development. The current article summarizes the substrate specificity, cellular localization, tissue-specific expression, and expression of the amino acid transporter genes in response to environmental cues. However, till date functionality of a majority of amino acid transporter genes in plant development and stress tolerance is unexplored. Considering, that gene expression is mainly regulated by the regulatory motifs localized in their promoter regions at the transcriptional levels. The promoter regions ( ~ 1-kbp) of these amino acid transporter genes were analysed for the presence of cis-regulatory motifs responsive to developmental and external cues. This analysis can help predict the functionality of known and unexplored amino acid transporters in different tissues, organs, and various growth and development stages and responses to external stimuli. Furthermore, based on the promoter analysis and utilizing the microarray expression data we have attempted to identify plausible candidates (listed below) that might be targeted for agricultural benefits.