Wheat stem rust, a devastating disease of wheat and barley caused by the fungal pathogenPuccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, was largely eradicated in Western Europe during the mid-to-latetwentieth century. However, isolated outbreaks have occurred in recent years. Here weinvestigate whether a lack of resistance in modern European varieties, increased presence of itsalternate host barberry and changes in climatic conditions could be facilitating its resurgence.We report the first wheat stem rust occurrence in the United Kingdom in nearly 60 years,with only 20% of UK wheat varieties resistant to this strain. Climate changes over the past 25years also suggest increasingly conducive conditions for infection. Furthermore, we documentthe first occurrence in decades of P. graminis on barberry in the UK . Our data illustrate thatwheat stem rust does occur in the UK and, when climatic conditions are conducive, couldseverely harm wheat and barley production.