Layers of crosstalk between circadian regulation and environmental signalling in plants

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Circadian regulation has a pervasive influence upon plant development, physiology and metabolism, impacting upon components of fitness and traits of agricultural importance. Circadian regulation is inextricably connected to the responses of plants to their abiotic environments, from the cellular to whole plant scales. Here, we review the crosstalk that occurs between circadian regulation and responses to the abiotic environment from the intracellular scale through to naturally fluctuating environments. We examine the spatial crosstalk that forms part of plant circadian regulation, at the subcellular, tissue, organ and whole-plant scales. This includes a focus on chloroplast and mitochondrial signalling, alternative splicing, long-distance circadian signalling and circadian regulation within natural environments. We also consider mathematical models for plant circadian regulation, to suggest future areas for advancing understanding of roles for circadian regulation in plant responses to environmental cues.