Vertical farming is a type of indoor agriculture where plants are cultivated in stacked systems. It forms a rapidly growing sector with new emerging technologies. Indoor farms often use soil-free techniques such as hydroponics and aeroponics. Aeroponics involves the application to roots of a nutrient aerosol, which can lead to greater plant productivity than hydroponic cultivation. Aeroponics is thought to resolve a variety of plant physiological constraints that occur within hydroponic systems. We synthesize existing studies of the physiology and development of crops cultivated under aeroponic conditions and identify key knowledge gaps. We identify future research areas to accelerate the sustainable intensification of vertical farming using aeroponic systems.