Genomic studies of adaptive evolution in outcrossing Arabidopsis species.

Large-scale population genomic approaches have very recently been fruitfully applied to the Arabidopsis relatives Arabidopsis halleri, A. lyrata and especially A. arenosa. In contrast to A. thaliana, these species are obligately outcrossing and thus the footprints of natural selection are more straightforward to detect. Furthermore, both theoretical and empirical studies indicate that outcrossers are better able to evolve in response to selection pressure. As a result, recent work in these species serves as a paradigm of population genomic studies of adaptation both to environmental as well as intracellular challenges.