FANCM promotes class I interfering crossovers and suppresses class II non-interfering crossovers in wheat meiosis.

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FANCM suppresses crossovers in plants by unwinding recombination intermediates. In wheat, crossovers are skewed toward the chromosome ends, thus limiting generation of novel allelic combinations. Here, we observe that FANCM maintains the obligate crossover in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, thus ensuring that every chromosome pair exhibits at least one crossover, by localizing class I crossover protein HEI10 at pachytene. FANCM also suppresses class II crossovers that increased 2.6-fold in fancm msh5 quadruple mutants. These data are consistent with a role for FANCM in second-end capture of class I designated crossover sites, whilst FANCM is also required to promote formation of non-crossovers. In hexaploid wheat, genetic mapping reveals that crossovers increase by 31% in fancm compared to wild type, indicating that fancm could be an effective tool to accelerate breeding. Crossover rate differences in fancm correlate with wild type crossover distributions, suggesting that chromatin may influence the recombination landscape in similar ways in both wild type and fancm.