Estimating mortality rates of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) under the ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) epidemic

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The ash dieback epidemic, caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, has been present in Europe for over 20 years and caused widespread damage and mortality in ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior) populations. Ash is a major natural capital asset and plays an important role in nature's contribution to people in Europe. A meta-analysis of surveys of ash mortality due to ash dieback  is presented along with a time-dependent model to estimate longer term mortality. In established plantations the maximum recorded mortality is approx. 85%; In woodlands it is approx. 70%.