Engineering anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants.

Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments giving the red, purple and blue colours of many flowers and fruit. In addition to their physiological roles in plants, to attract pollinators and seed dispersers, dietary anthocyanins are associated with protection against certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases and other chronic human disorders. Enhanced supplies of pure anthocyanins would service the demands of research to investigate these health-promoting effects and would also prove a valuable resource for the colourants and cosmetic industries to investigate the effects of chemical modifications, co-pigments, and pH on colour and stability for developing new plant sources of natural colourants, and new natural colours.