DNA topoisomerase I and DNA gyrase as targets for TB therapy.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest bacterial disease in the world. New therapeutic agents are urgently needed to replace existing drugs for which resistance is a significant problem. DNA topoisomerases are well-validated targets for antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapies. Although bacterial topoisomerase I has yet to be exploited as a target for clinical antibiotics, DNA gyrase has been extensively targeted, including the highly clinically successful fluoroquinolones, which have been utilized in TB therapy. Here, we review the exploitation of topoisomerases as antibacterial targets and summarize progress in developing new agents to target DNA topoisomerase I and DNA gyrase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.