As integral regulators in plant development and stress response, microRNAs (miRNAs) themselves need to be tightly regulated. Here, we show that tocopherols (vitamin E), lipid-soluble antioxidants synthesized from tyrosine in chloroplasts, positively regulate the biogenesis of miRNAs. Tocopherols are required for the accumulation of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP), a retrograde inhibitor of the nuclear exoribonucleases (XRN), which may protect primary miRNAs from being degraded and promote mature miRNA production. Such regulation is involved in heat-induced accumulation of miR398 and plant acquisition of heat tolerance. Our study reveals a chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that favors miRNA biogenesis under heat and possibly other environmental perturbations.