Brassinosteroid coordinates cell layer interactions in plants via cell wall and tissue mechanics

Growth coordination between cell layers is essential for development of most multicellular organisms. Coordination may be mediated by molecular signalling and/or mechanical connectivity between cells, but how genes modify mechanical interactions between layers is unknown. Here we show that genes driving brassinosteroid synthesis promote growth of internal tissue by reducing mechanical epidermal constraint. We identify a brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf mutant in the aquatic plant Utricularia gibba with twisted internal tissue, likely caused by a mechanical constraint from a slow-growing epidermis. We test this hypothesis by showing that a brassinosteroid mutant in Arabidopsis enhances epidermal crack formation, indicative of increased tissue stress. We propose that by remodeling cell walls, brassinosteroids reduce epidermal constraint, showing how genes can control growth coordination between layers via mechanics.