Liver fibrosis occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases. The understanding of the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis has grown considerably, but the effective treatments are still lacking. Alogliptin, a classical Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor with great effects on type 2 diabetes, has shown the potential to protect liver, but its effects on the progression of liver fibrosis have not been clarified. Herein, we explored the anti-fibrosis effects of alogliptin. In vitro, we demonstrated that alogliptin suppressed the activation of LX-2 upon transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) challenge. In vivo, chronic treatment with alogliptin alleviated hepatic steatosis and protected from the liver injury in ob/ob mice, which delayed the progression of liver fibrosis. Furthermore, alogliptin significantly relieved the hepatic fibrosis in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that negatively modulation of alogliptin on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation might contribute to liver fibrosis alleviation. Our research provides the potential possibility of alogliptin on the application for liver fibrosis therapy and suggests that DPP4 may be a novel target for liver fibrosis therapy.