Genome-wide introgression and substitution lines have been developed in many plant species, enhancing mapping precision, gene discovery, and the identification and exploitation of variation from wild relatives. Created over multiple generations of crossing and/or backcrossing accompanied by marker-assisted selection, the resulting introgression lines are a fixed genetic resource. In this study we report the development of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) generated to systematically capture genetic variation from tetraploid (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii) progenitor species. Generated in a common genetic background over four generations of backcrossing, this is a base resource for the mapping and characterization of wheat progenitor variation. To facilitate further exploitation the final population was genetically characterized using a high-density genotyping array and a range of agronomic and grain traits assessed to demonstrate the potential use of the populations for trait localization in wheat.