A CPF-like phosphatase module links transcription termination to chromatin silencing.

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The interconnections between co-transcriptional regulation, chromatin environment, and transcriptional output remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism underlying RNA 3′ processing-mediated Polycomb silencing of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). We show a requirement for ANTHESIS PROMOTING FACTOR 1 (APRF1), a homolog of yeast Swd2 and human WDR82, known to regulate RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) during transcription termination. APRF1 interacts with TYPE ONE SERINE/THREONINE PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 4 (TOPP4) (yeast Glc7/human PP1) and LUMINIDEPENDENS (LD), the latter showing structural features found in Ref2/PNUTS, all components of the yeast and human phosphatase module of the CPF 3′ end-processing machinery. LD has been shown to co-associate in vivo with the histone H3 K4 demethylase FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD). This work shows how the APRF1/LD-mediated polyadenylation/termination process influences subsequent rounds of transcription by changing the local chromatin environment at FLC.