A Bronze-Tomato Enriched Diet Affects the Intestinal Microbiome under Homeostatic and Inflammatory Conditions.

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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are debilitating chronic inflammatory disorders that develop as a result of a defective immune response toward intestinal bacteria. Intestinal dysbiosis is associated with the onset of IBD and has been reported to persist even in patients in deep remission. We investigated the possibility of a dietary-induced switch to the gut microbiota composition using Winnie mice as a model of spontaneous ulcerative colitis and chow enriched with 1% Bronze tomato. We used the near isogenic tomato line strategy to investigate the effects of a diet enriched in polyphenols administered to mild but established chronic intestinal inflammation. The Bronze-enriched chow administered for two weeks was not able to produce any macroscopic effect on the IBD symptoms, although, at molecular level there was a significant induction of anti-inflammatory genes and intracellular staining of T cells revealed a mild decrease in IL17A and IFN? production. Analysis of the microbial composition revealed that two weeks of Bronze enriched diet was sufficient to perturb the microbial composition of Winnie and control mice, suggesting that polyphenol-enriched diets may create unfavorable conditions for distinct bacterial species. In conclusion, dietary regimes enriched in polyphenols may efficiently support IBD remission affecting the intestinal dysbiosis.