How phytoplasmas generate witches' brooms and attract insect vectors


Functional genomics of how insects manipulate plants


View all publications from the Hogenhout Lab



A few sequence polymorphisms among isolates of Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma associate with organ proliferation symptoms of infected maize plants. Orlovskis Z, Canale MC, Haryono M, Lopes JRS, Kuo CH, Hogenhout SA. Ann Bot. 2017 Mar 1;119(5):869-884. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcw213. PMID: 28069632


A Bacterial Parasite Effector Mediates Insect Vector Attraction in Host Plants Independently of Developmental Changes. Orlovskis Z, Hogenhout SA. Front Plant Sci. 2016 Jun 23;7:885. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00885. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27446117

Orlovskis, Z., Canale, M. C., Thole, V., Pecher, P., Lopes, J. R., & Hogenhout, S. A. (2015). Insect-borne plant pathogenic bacteria: getting a ride goes beyond physical contact. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 9, 16-23.

Orlovskis, Z. and Hogenhout, S.A., (2016). A bacterial parasite effector mediates insect vector attraction in host plants independently of developmental changes. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, p.885. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00885


Chang, H-H., Cho, S-T., Canale, M.C., Mugford, S.T., Lopes, J.R.S., Hogenhout S.A. and,Kuo, C-H. (2015). Complete Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” ML, an Obligate Nutritional Symbiont of Maize Leafhopper (Dalbulus maidis). Genome Announc 3(1):e01483-14.


MacLean AM, Orlovskis Z, Kowitwanich K, Zdziarska AM, Angenent GC, et al. (2014) Phytoplasma Effector SAP54 Hijacks Plant Reproduction by Degrading MADS-box Proteins and Promotes Insect Colonization in a RAD23-Dependent Manner. PLoS Biol 12(4): e1001835. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001835

Sugio A, Maclean AM, Hogenhout SA. (2014). The small phytoplasma virulence effector SAP11 contains distinct domains required for nuclear targeting and CIN-TCP binding and destabilization. New Phytol. 2014 May;202(3):838-48. doi: 10.1111/nph.12721. Epub 2014 Feb 19.



Cano LM, Raffaele S, Haugen RH, Saunders DG, Leonelli L, MacLean D, Hogenhout SA, Kamoun S. (2013). Major transcriptome reprogramming underlies floral mimicry induced by the rust fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 17;8(9):e75293.


Win J., Chaparro-Garcia A., Belhaj K., Saunders D. G., Yoshida K., Dong S., Schornack D. Zipfel C., Robatzek S., Hogenhout S. A. and Kamoun S. (2012). Effector Biology of Plant-Associated Organisms: Concepts and Perspectives. Cold. Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. Dec. 6, 2012.

MacLean A. M. and Hogenhout S. A. (2012). Spiroplasmas and phytoplasmas: the phytopathogenic mollicutes of the phloem. In: Biochemistry of the Phloem. (Thompson G. A. and Van Bell A. eds).

Bèven L., Hogenhout S. A., Labroussaa F., Arricau-Bouvery N. and Saillard C. (2012). Leafhopper transmission of spiroplasmas: Spiroplasma citri proteins involved in transmission by leafhopper vectors. In: Mollicutes (Citti C. and Browning G. eds).



Sugio A., Kingdom H. N., Maclean A. M., Grieve V.M. and Hogenhout S. A. (2011). Phytoplasma SAP11 enhances insect vector reproduction by directly manipulating plant development and defense hormone biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: E1254-E1263.

MacLean A. M., Sugio A., Makarova O., Findlay K., Grieve V. M., Toth R., Nicolaisen M. and Hogenhout S. A. (2011). Phytoplasma effector SAP54 induces indeterminate and leafy flower development in Arabidopsis plants. Plant Physiol. 157: 831-841.

Sugio A., MacLean A. M., Kingdom H. N., Grieve V. M., Manimekalai R. and Hogenhout S. A. (2011). Diverse Targets of Phytoplasma Effectors: From Plant Development to Defense Against Insects. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 49: 175-195.

Ammar E. D., Gasparich G. E., Hall D. G. and Hogenhout S. A. (2011). Spiroplasmas-like organisms closely associated with the gut in five leafhopper species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Arch. Microbiology. 193: 35-44.



Toruño T. Y., Šeruga Musić M., Simi S., Nicolaisen M. and Hogenhout S. A. (2010). Phytoplasma PMU1 exists as linear chromosomal and circular extrachromosomal elements and has enhanced expression in insect vectors compared with plant hosts. Mol. Microbiol. 77: 1406-1415.

Hogenhout S.A. and Šeruga Musić M. (2010). Phytoplasma genomics, from sequencing to comparative and functional genomics – What Have We Learnt? In: Phytoplasmas: Genomes, Plant Hosts and Vectors (Weintraub P. and Jones P. eds). CABI publishing, Oxfordshire, UK, Pp. 19-36.



Jovic J., Cvrkovic T. Mitrovic M., Krnjajic S., Petrovic A., Redinbaugh M. G., Pratt R. C., Hogenhout S. A., Tosevski I. (2009). Stolbur phytoplasma transmission to maize by Reptalus panzeri and the disease cycle of Maize Redness in Serbia. Phytopathology 99: 1053-1061.

Bai X., Correa V. R., Toruno T. Y., Ammar E-D., Kamoun S. and Hogenhout S. A. (2009). AY-WB phytoplasma secretes a protein that targets plant cell nuclei. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 22: 18-30.

Hogenhout S. A. Plant Pathogens, minor (Phytoplasmas) (2009). Article 00348, Encyclopedia of Microbiology (D. Baulcombe, Editor), Oxford: Elsevier.

Hogenhout S. A., Van der Hoorn R. A. L., Terauchi R. and Kamoun S. (2009). Emerging concepts in effector biology of plant-associated organisms. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 22: 115-122. (Thomson Reuters Fast Breaking paper).



Hogenhout S. A. and Loria R. (2008). Virulence mechanisms of Gram-positive plant pathogenic bacteria. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 11: 449-456.

Hogenhout, S.A., Oshima, K., Ammar, E-D., Kakizawa, S., Kingdom, H.N. and Namba, S. (2008). Phytoplasmas: Bacteria that manipulate plants and insects. Mol. Plant Pathol. 9: 403-423.



Jovic J., Cvrkovic T., Mitrovic M, Krnjajic S., Redinbaugh M. G., Pratt R. C; Gingery R.E., Hogenhout S.A., and Tosevski I. (2007). Roles of stolbur phytoplasma and Reptalus panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the epidemiology of Maize redness in Serbia. Eur. J. Plant Pathology. 118: 85-89.

Moya-Raygoza, G., Hogenhout, S.A. and Nault, L.R. (2007). Habitat of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) during the Dry (Winter) Season in Mexico. Environ. Entomol. 36: 1066-1072.

Bai X., Ammar E-D. and Hogenhout S. A. (2007). A Secreted effector protein of AY-WB phytoplasma accumulates in nuclei and alters gene expression of host plant cells, and is detected in various tissues of the leafhopper Macrosteles quadrilineatus. Bulletin of Insectology 60: 217-218 (Conference proceedings; peer reviewed).

Kanneganti T., Bai X., Win J., Meulia T., Goodin M., Kamoun S. and Hogenhout S.A. (2007). A functional genetic assay for nuclear trafficking. Plant J. 50: 149-158.



Bai X., Zhang J., Ewing E., Miller S.A., Radek A., Schevchenko D., Tsukerman K., Walunas T., Lapidus A., Campbell, J.W. and Hogenhout S.A. (2006). Living with genome instability: the adaptation of phytoplasmas to diverse environments of their insect and plant hosts. J. Bacteriol. 188: 3682-3696.

Ammar E. D. and Hogenhout S. A. (2006). Mollicutes associated with arthropods and plants. In: Insect Symbiosis Vol. II. B. Kostas and T. Miller [eds.], pp 97-118. CRC Press.



De Oliveira E., de Oliveira C.M., Magalhães P.C., de Lelis Teixeira de Andrade C., and Hogenhout S.A. (2005). Spiroplasma and phytoplasma infection reduce kernel production, and nutrient and water contents of several but not all maize cultivars. Maydica. 50: 171-178.

Ammar E-D. and Hogenhout S.A. (2005). Immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy as a reliable method for studying the distribution of mollicutes in vector leafhoppers (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera) and in host plants. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am 98: 820-826.



Zhang J., Hogenhout S.A., Nault L.R., Hoy C.W. and Miller S.A. (2004). Molecular and symptom analyses of phytoplasma strains from lettuce reveal a diverse population. Phytopathology. 94: 842-849.

Bai X., Zhang J., Holford I.R., and Hogenhout S.A. (2004). Comparative genomics identifies genes shared by distantly related insect-transmitted plant pathogenic mollicutes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 235: 249-258.

Bai X., Fazzolari T. and Hogenhout S.A. (2004). Identification and Characterization of Spiroplasma kunkelii traE genes. Gene. 336: 81-91.

Ammar E-D., Fulton D., Bai X., Meulia T. and Hogenhout S.A. (2004). An attachment tip and pili-like structures in insect- and plant-pathogenic spiroplasmas of the class Mollicutes. Arch. Microbiol. 181: 97-105.

Hogenhout S. A. (2004). Techniques for spiroplasma cultivation in vitro. In: Enfezamentos, Viroses, Mancha por Phaeosphaeria em Milho: Diagnose, marcadores moleculares para resistencia en controle. Elizabeth de Oliveira Sabato and Charles Martins de Oliveira [eds.]. Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil.

Hogenhout S. A. (2004). Effects of spiroplasma infection on leafhoppers. In: Enfezamentos, Viroses, Mancha por Phaeosphaeria em Milho: Diagnose, marcadores moleculares para resistencia en controle. Elizabeth de Oliveira-Sabato and Charles Martins de Oliveira [eds.]. Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil.



Özbek E., Miller S.A., Meulia T. and Hogenhout S.A. (2003). Infection and replication sites of Spiroplasma kunkelii (Class: Mollicutes) in midgut and Malpighian tubules of the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis. J. Invert. Pathol. 82: 167-175.



Bai X. and Hogenhout S.A. (2002). Genome sequence survey of the mollicute corn stunt spiroplasma, Spiroplasma kunkelii. FEMS Microbiol. Lett.. 210: 7-17.



Montano, H.G., Davis R.E., Dally E.L., Hogenhout S.A., Pimental, J.P. and Brioso, P.S. (2001). Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Hibiscus witches’ broom disease. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51: 1109-1118.

Kamoun S. and Hogenhout S.A. (2001). Agricultural Microbes Genome 2: First Glimpses into the Genomes of Plant-Associated Microbes. Plant Cell 13: 451-458.