Major Gene Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs)

The Germplasm Resources Unit at the John Innes Centre holds unique collections of wheat major gene allele recombinant inbred lines, the most important of these being the Ppd1 and Rht series. 

The Ppd1 Series

These lines contain the semi-dominant, field-early, photoperiod insensitive allele PpdD1a as described in Beales et al., 2007. The allele has been backcrossed into the background variety "Mercia" to at least BC4 and selected by phenotype by the late Tony Worland at the John Innes Centre.
We have used the co-dominant DNA marker in Beales et al., to verify our stocks are correct*.
The stocks available comprise two lines where the Ppd1 allele was drawn from different sources (accession codes W9331 and W9332), and the control Mercia accession used to backcross the allele into (ppd1, accession W9333).

Reference: Beales J, Turner A, Griffiths S, Snape JW, Laurie DA (2007) A pseudo-response regulator is misexpressed in the photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1a mutant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 115:721–733.

* 100% of randomly sampled germlings show correct PCR product size; based on 10 individuals for W9331 and 5 individuals for W9332.

The Rht Series

The Rht (Reduced Height) genes of wheat have been described as the "Green Revolution" genes as they were used extensively by Norman Borlaug in his world-famous wheat breeding program which revolutionised world wheat production in the 1970s and 1980s. A very good introduction to the Rht genes of wheat is provided here by the University of California, Davis.

Near Isogenic Lines of Rht genes in various backgrounds are held by the GRU @ JIC. The stocks are detailed below. Accession numbers bearing an asterisk have not yet been verified by DNA analysis, we hope to confirm these accessions as soon as is practically possible.

For the stocks in the four tables below, each allele has been backcrossed into the background variety to at least BC4 and selected by phenotype by Worland, Flintham and Gale of the Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge, UK, and subsequently at the John Innes Centre.

Background: Cultivar "Mercia"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht1 "Norin 10" RhtB1b W9314
Rht1 "Saitama 27" RhtB1d W9316
Rht1 "Bezostaya" RhtB1e W9318
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9321
Rht2 "Ai-bian 1a" RhtD1d W9322
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9324 W9325
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9333*  

 

Background: Cultivar "Cappelle Desprez"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht1 "Norin 10" RhtB1b W9334
Rht1 "Saitama 27" RhtB1d W9335
Rht1 "Bezostaya" RhtB1e W9336 W9337
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9338
Rht2 "Ai-bian 1a" RhtD1d W9340
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9341  
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9342*  

 

Background: Cultivar "April Bearded"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht1 "Norin 10" RhtB1b W9969
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9970
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9971*
Rht1 + Rht2 RhtB1b, RhtD1b W9972*
Rht2 + Rht3 RhtB1c, RhtD1b W9973  
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9968  

W9968 has been verified for the absence of RhtB1c but not tested for the absence of RhtB1b and RhtD1b

Background: Cultivar "Maris Huntsman"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht1 "Norin 10" RhtB1b W9983
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9984
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9985
Rht1 + Rht2 RhtB1b, RhtD1b W9986
Rht2 + Rht3 RhtB1c, RhtD1b W9987  
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9982  

W9982 has been verified for the absence of RhtB1c but not tested for the absence of RhtB1b and RhtD1b

The following stocks were generated outside of the John Innes Centre and the degree of backcrossing is not known:

Background: Cultivar "Bizel"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9588
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9587  

W9587 has been verified for the absence of RhtB1c but not tested for the absence of RhtB1b and RhtD1b

Background: Cultivar "Burt"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht1 "Norin 10" RhtB1b W9597
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9598
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9599
Rht1 + Rht2 RhtB1b, RhtD1b W9600
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9596  

W9596 has been verified for the absence of RhtB1c but not tested for the absence of RhtB1b and RhtD1b

Background: Cultivar "Centana"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9609
Rht1 + Rht2 RhtB1b, RhtD1b W9608
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9606  

W9606 has been verified for the absence of RhtB1c but not tested for the absence of RhtB1b and RhtD1b

Background: Cultivar "Comtal" (Rht2 carrier)
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Wild Type (Rht2) RhtD1b W9615
Rht1 + Rht2 RhtB1b, RhtD1b W9616

 

Background: Cultivar "Itana"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht1 "Norin 10" RhtB1b W9656
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9658
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9659
Rht1 + Rht2 RhtB1b, RhtD1b W9657
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9655  

W9655 has been verified for the absence of RhtB1c but not tested for the absence of RhtB1b and RhtD1b

Background: Cultivar "Maringa"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht1 "Norin 10" RhtB1b W9992
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9993*
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9994
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9991*  

 

Background: Cultivar "Mironovskaya"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht1 "Norin 10" RhtB1b W9709
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9710
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9711
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9708*  

 

Background: Cultivar "Nainari"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9989
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9990
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9988*  

 

Background: Cultivar "Poncheau"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht1 "Norin 10" RhtB1b W9780
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9782
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9891  

W9891 has been verified for the absence of RhtB1c but not tested for the absence of RhtB1b and RhtD1b

Background: Cultivar "VPM1"
Original Designation New Allele Notation Accession Number(s)
Rht1 "Norin 10" RhtB1b W9846
Rht2 "Norin 10" RhtD1b W9847
Rht3 "Tom Thumb" RhtB1c W9848
rht "Wild Type" (tall) rhtB1a, rhtD1a W9845  

W9845 has been verified for the absence of RhtB1c but not tested for the absence of RhtB1b and RhtD1b

DNA marker verification procedure: Full details are available on request, but 100% of at least 4 individuals from each accession were homozygous positive for the expected alleles using the markers in Pearce et al., 2011 or those available from the UC Davis MasWheat Website.

Reference: Pearce S et al., 2011. Molecular characterization of Rht-1 dwarfing genes in hexaploid wheat. Plant Physiol. 157 (4) : 1820-31.