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Tony Maxwell
Biological Chemistry Department
Tony Maxwell



Djaout, K., Singh, V., Boum, Y., Katawera, V., Becker, H.F., Bush, N.G., Hearnshaw, S.J., Pritchard, J.E., Bourbon, P., Madrid, P.B. Maxwell, A., Mizrahi, V., Myllykallio, H. and Ekins, S. “Predictive modeling targets thymidylate synthase ThyX in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.” Sci. Rep., in press, (2016).

Austin, M.J., Hearnshaw, S.J., Mitchenall, L.A., McDermott, P.J., Howell, L.A., Maxwell, A. and Searcey, M. “A natural product inspired fragment-based approach towards the development of novel antibacterial agents.” Med. chem. Commun., in press, (2016)

Evans-Roberts, K. M., Mitchenall, L. A., Wall, M. K., Leroux, J., Mylne, J. S. & Maxwell, A. “DNA Gyrase is the Target for the Quinolone Drug Ciprofloxacin in Arabidopsis thaliana.” J. Biol. Chem. 291, 3136-44 (2016).


Sipos, A., Pato, J., Szekely, R., Hartkoorn, R. C., Kekesi, L., Orfi, L., Szantai-Kis, C., Mikusova, K., Svetlikova, Z., Kordulakova, J., Nagaraja, V., Godbole, A. A., Bush, N., Collin, F., Maxwell, A., Cole, S. T. & Keri, G. “Lead selection and characterization of antitubercular compounds using the Nested Chemical Library.” Tuberculosis (Edinb) 95 Suppl 1, S200-6 (2015).

Schäfer, M., Le, T. B. K., Hearnshaw, S. J., Maxwell, A., Challis, G. L., Wilkinson, B. & Buttner, M. J. “SimC7 is a novel NAD(P)H-dependent ketoreductase essential for the antibiotic activity of the DNA gyrase inhibitor simocyclinone.” J. Mol. Biol. 427, 2192-2204 (2015).

Hearnshaw, S.J., Chung, T.C., Stevenson, C.E.M., Maxwell, A. and Lawson, D.M. “The role of monovalent cations in the ATPase reaction of DNA gyrase.” Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 426, 2023-2033 (2015)

Bush, N. G., Evans-Roberts, K. M. & Maxwell, A. “DNA Topoisomerases.” In EcoSal—Escherichia coli and Salmonella: cellular and molecular biology. doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.ESP-0010-2014; (Böck, A., Curtiss III, R., Kaper, J. B., Karp, P. D., Neidhardt, F. C., Nyström, T., Slauch, J. M., Squires, C. L. & Ussery, D., eds.). ASM Press, Washington DC (2015).


Thomson, N.H., Santos, S., Mitchenall, L.A., Stuchinskaya, T., Taylor, J.A. and Maxwell, A. “DNA G-segment bending is not the sole determinant of topology simplification by type II DNA topoisomerases.” Scientific reports, 4, 6158 (2014).

Hearnshaw, S. J., Edwards, M. J., Stevenson, C. E., Lawson, D. M. & Maxwell, A. “A new crystal structure of the bifunctional antibiotic simocyclinone D8 bound to DNA gyrase gives fresh insight into the mechanism of inhibition.” J Mol Biol. 426, 2023-2033 (2014).

Thompson, R. E., Collin, F., Maxwell, A., Jolliffe, K. A. & Payne, R. J. “Synthesis of Full Length and Truncated Microcin B17 Analogues as DNA Gyrase Poisons.” Org. Biomol. Chem. 12, 1570-8 (2014).


Karkare, S., Brown, A. C., Parish, T. & Maxwell, A. “Identification of the transcriptional start of Mycobacterium tuberculosis GyrB.” BMC Res. Notes 6, 274 (2013).

Collin, F., Thompson, R.E., Jolliffe, K.A., Payne, R.J. and Maxwell, A. “Fragments of the bacterial toxin microcin B17 as gyrase poisons.” PLoS One 8, e61459 (2013).

Taylor, J. A., Mitchenall, L. A., Rejzek, M., Field, R. A. & Maxwell, A. “Application of a Novel Microtitre Plate-Based Assay for the Discovery of New Inhibitors of DNA Gyrase and DNA Topoisomerase VI.” PLoS ONE 8, e58010 (2013).

Bates, A. D., Noy, A., Piperakis, M. M., Harris, S. A. & Maxwell, A. “Small DNA circles as probes of DNA topology.” Biochem. Soc. Tran.s 41, 565-70 (2013).

Karkare, S., Chung, T. T., Collin, F., Mitchenall, L. A., McKay, A. R., Greive, S. J., Meyer, J. J., Lall, N. & Maxwell, A. “The naphthoquinone diospyrin is an inhibitor of DNA gyrase with a novel mechanism of action.” J. Biol. Chem .288, 5149-56. (2013).

Tao, J., Han, J., Wu, H., Hu, X., Deng, J., Fleming, J., Maxwell, A., Bi, L. & Mi, K. “Mycobacterium fluoroquinolone resistance protein B, a novel small GTPase, is involved in the regulation of DNA gyrase and drug resistance.” Nucleic Acids Res. 41, 2370-2381. (2013).


Karkare S., Yousafzai F., Mitchenall L. A., Maxwell A. (2012) The role of Ca2+ in the activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase Nucleic Acids Research 40 9774-87

Smith A. B., López-Villarejo J., Diago-Navarro E., Mitchenall L. A., Barendregt A., Heck A. J., Lemonnier M., Maxwell A., Díaz-Orejas R. (2012) A Common Origin for the Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems parD and ccd, Suggested by Analyses of Toxin/Target and Toxin/Antitoxin Interactions. PLoS ONE 7 e46499

Taylor J. A., Burton N. P., Maxwell A.(2012) High-throughput microtitre plate-based assay for DNA topoisomerases. In Functional Genomics: Methods and Protocols (Editors: Kaufmann M., Klinger C.) Humana Press, New York, 229-239


Wu J., Zhang Z., Mitchenall L. A., Maxwell A., Deng J., Zhang H., Zhou Y., Bi L., Zhang X.-E. (2011) The dimer state of GyrB is an active form: implications for the initial complex assembly and processive strand passage. Nucleic Acids Res., 39, 8488-502

Bates A. D., Berger J. M., Maxwell A. (2011) The ancestral role of ATP hydrolisis in type II topoisomerases: prevention of DNA double-strand breaks. Nucleic Acids Res. 39(15) 6327-39.

Collin, F., Karkare, S. & Maxwell, A. (2011). Exploiting bacterial DNA gyrase as a drug target: current state and perspectives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 92, 479-97.

Pitts S., Liou G., Mitchenall L. A., Burgin A. B., Maxwell A., Neumann K., Osheroff N. (2011) Use of Divalent Metal Ions in the DNA Cleavage Reaction of Topoisomerase IV. Nucleic Acids Res. 39(11), 4808-17.

Alt S., Mitchenall L. A., Maxwell A., Heide L. (2011) Inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by aminocoumarin antibiotics.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 66(9), 2061-9.

Edwards M. J., Williams M. A., Maxwell A., McKay A. R. (2011) Mass spectrometry reveals that the antibiotic simcyclinone D8 binds to DNA gyrase in a "bent-over" conformation: evidence of positve cooperativity in binding. Biochemistry 50, 3432-40.

Hegde S. S., Vetting M. W., Mitchenall L. A., Maxwell A., Blanchard J. S. (2011) Structural and biochemical analysis of the pentapeptide repeat protein EfsQnr, a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 55 110-117.

Le T. B., Stevenson C. E., Fiedler H. P., Maxwell A., Lawson D. M., Buttner M. J. (2011) Structures of the TetR-like simocyclinone efflux pump repressor, SimR, and the mechanism of ligand-mediated derepression Journal of Molecular Biology 408 40-56.


Evans-Roberts K. M., Breuer C., Wall M. K., Sugimoto-Shirasu K., Maxwell A. (2010) Arabidopsis thaliana GYRB3 does not encode a DNA gyrase subunit. PLoS One 5 e9899.

Yuan J., Sterck Y., Mitchenall L. A., Maxwell A., Loris R., Waldor M. K. (2010) Vibrio cholerae ParE2 poisons DNA gyrase via a mechanism distinct from other gyrase inhibitors. Journal of Biological Chemistry 285 40397-40408.

Sissi C., Vazquez E., Chemello A., Mitchenall L. A., Maxwell A., Palumbo M. (2010). Mapping simocyclinone D8 interaction to DNA gyrase: evidence for a new binding site on GyrB. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 54 213-220.

Bates A. D., Maxwell A. (2010). The role of ATP in the reactions of type II DNA topoisomerases.
Biochemical Society Transactions 38 438-442.

Burrell M. R., Burton N. P., Maxwell A. (2010) A high-throughput assay for DNA topoisomerases and other enzymes, based on DNA triplex formation. Drug-DNA Interaction Protocols Humana Press 613 257-66.


Edwards M. J., Flatman R. H., Mitchenall L. A., Stevenson C. E., Le T. B., Clarke T. A., McKay A. R., Fiedler H. P., Buttner M. J., Lawson D. M., Maxwell A. (2009). A crystal structure of the bifunctional antibiotic simocyclinone D8, bound to DNA gyrase. Science 326 (5958) 1415-8.
Abstract; Full text

Edwards M. J., Flatman R. H., Mitchenall L. A., Stevenson C. E., Maxwell A., Lawson D. M. (2009). Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a complex formed between the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 and the DNA breakage-reunion domain of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology & Crystallization Communications 65 (Pt 8) 846-8.

Evans-Roberts K., Maxwell A. (2009). DNA topoisomerases Ecosal-Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. ASM Press, Washington, D.C. (4.4.9) Electronic only:

Le T. B., Fiedler H. P., den Hengst C. D., Ahn S. K., Maxwell A., Buttner M. J. (2009). Coupling of the biosynthesis and export of the DNA gyrase inhibitor simocyclinone in Streptomyces antibioticus. Molecular Microbiology 72 (6) 1462-1474.

Stuchinskaya, T., Mitchenall, L. A., Schoeffler, A. J., Corbett, K. D., Berger, J. M., Bates, A. D. and Maxwell, A. (2009). How do type II topoisomerases use ATP hydrolysis to simplify DNA topology beyond equilibrium? Investigating the relaxation reaction of nonsupercoiling type II topoisomerases. J Mol Biol 385, 1397-408.


Anderle, C., Stieger, M., Burrell, M., Reinelt, S., Maxwell, A., Page, M. and Heide, L. (2008). Biological activities of novel gyrase inhibitors of the aminocoumarin class. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52, 1982-90.

Hashimi, S. M., Huang, G., Maxwell, A. and Birch, R. G. (2008). DNA Gyrase from the Albicidin Producer Xanthomonas albilineans Has Multiple-Antibiotic-Resistance and Unusual Enzymatic Properties. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52, 1382-90.

Sissi, C., Chemello, A., Vazquez, E., Mitchenall, L. A., Maxwell, A. and Palumbo, M. (2008). DNA gyrase requires DNA for effective two-site coordination of divalent metal ions: further insight into the mechanism of enzyme action. Biochemistry 47, 8538-45.


Richter, S.N., Giaretta, G., Comuzzi, V., Leo, E., Mitchenall, L.A., Maxwell, A. and Palumbo, M. (2007) Hot-spot consensus of fluoroquinolone-mediated DNA cleavage by Gram-negative and Gram-positive type II DNA topoisomerases. Nucleic Acids Res., 35, 6075-85. 

Breuer, C., Stacey, N. J., West, C. E., Zhao, Y., Chory, J., Tsukaya, H., Azumi, Y., Maxwell, A., Roberts, K. and Sugimoto-Shirasu, K. (2007). BIN4, a novel component of the plant DNA topoisomerase VI complex, is required for endoreduplication in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 19, 3655-68.

Parks, W.M., Bottrill, A.R., Pierrat, O.A., Durrant, M.C. and Maxwell, A. (2007) The action of the bacterial toxin, microcin B17, on DNA gyrase. Biochimie, 89, 500-507.

Nollmann, M., Stone, M.D., Bryant, Z., Gore, J., Crisona, N.J., Hong, S.C., Mitelheiser, S., Maxwell, A., Bustamante, C. and Cozzarelli, N.R. (2007) Multiple modes of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase activity revealed by force and torque. Nat Struct Mol Biol, 14, 264-271.

Hashimi, S.M., Wall, M.K., Smith, A.B., Maxwell, A. and Birch, R.G. (2007) The phytotoxin albicidin is a novel inhibitor of DNA gyrase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 51, 181-187.

Costenaro, L., Grossmann, J.G., Ebel, C. and Maxwell, A. (2007) Modular structure of the full-length DNA gyrase B subunit revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering. Structure, 15, 329-339.

Bates, A.D. and Maxwell, A. (2007) Energy Coupling in Type II Topoisomerases: Why Do They Hydrolyze ATP? Biochemistry, 46, 7929-7941.


Stacey, N.J., Kuromori, T., Azumi, Y., Roberts, G.R., Breuer, C., Wada, T., Maxwell, A., Roberts, K. and Sugimoto-Shirasu, K. (2006) Arabidopsis SPO11-2 functions with SPO11-1 in meiotic recombination. Plant J., 48, 206-216.

Smith, A.B. and Maxwell, A. (2006) A strand-passage conformation of DNA gyrase is required to allow the bacterial toxin, CcdB, to access its binding site. Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 4667-4676.

Oram, M., Travers, A.A., Howells, A.J., Maxwell, A. and Pato, M.L. (2006) Dissection of the bacteriophage Mu strong gyrase site (SGS): significance of the SGS right arm in Mu biology and DNA gyrase mechanism. J Bacteriol, 188, 619-632.

Maxwell, A., Burton, N.P. and O'Hagan, N. (2006) High-throughput assays for DNA gyrase and other topoisomerases. Nucleic Acids Res, 34, e104.

Huang, Y.Y., Deng, J.Y., Gu, J., Zhang, Z.P., Maxwell, A., Bi, L.J., Chen, Y.Y., Zhou, Y.F., Yu, Z.N. and Zhang, X.E. (2006) The key DNA-binding residues in the C-terminal domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase A subunit (GyrA). Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 5650-5659.

Flatman, R.H., Eustaquio, A., Li, S.M., Heide, L. and Maxwell, A. (2006) Structure-activity relationships of aminocoumarin-type gyrase and topoisomerase IV inhibitors obtained by combinatorial biosynthesis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 50, 1136-1142.

Burlison, J.A., Neckers, L., Smith, A.B., Maxwell, A. and Blagg, B.S. (2006) Novobiocin: Redesigning a DNA Gyrase Inhibitor for Selective Inhibition of Hsp90. J Am Chem Soc, 128, 15529-15536.


Hegde SS, Vetting MW, Roderick SL, Mitchenall LA, Maxwell A, Takiff HE, Blanchard JS (2005) A fluoroquinolone resistance protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that mimics DNA. Science 308, 1480-1483.

Manjunatha UH, Maxwell A, Nagaraja V (2005) A monoclonal antibody that inhibits mycobacterial DNA gyrase by a novel mechanism. Nucleic Acids Res 33, 3085-3094.

Maxwell A, Costenaro L, Mitelheiser S, Bates AD (2005) Coupling ATP hydrolysis to DNA strand passage in type IIA DNA topoisomerases. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 33, 1460-1464.

Sissi C, Marangon E, Chemello A, Noble CG, Maxwell A, Palumbo M (2005) The effects of metal ions on the structure and stability of the DNA gyrase B protein. J Mol Biol 353, 1152-1160.

Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Roberts GR, Stacey NJ, Hofte H, McCann MC, Maxwell A, Roberts K (2005) RHL1 is an essential component of the plant DNA topoisomerase VI complex and is required for ploidy-dependent cell growth. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 18736-18741.

Pierrat, O.A. and Maxwell, A. (2005) The effect of Microcin B17 on the ATPase and DNA cleavage reactions of DNA gyrase: evidence for the role of DNA strand passage in the mechanism of toxin action. Biochemistry, 44, 4204-4215.

Flatman, R.H., Howells, A.J., Heide, L., Fiedler, H.-P. and Maxwell, A. (2005) Simocyclinone D8: an inhibitor of DNA gyrase with a novel mode of action. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 1093-1100.

Edmondson, A.C., Song, D., Alvarez, L.A., Wall, M.K., Almond, D., McClellan, D.A., Maxwell, A. and Nielsen, B.L. (2005) Characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial-targeted single-stranded DNA binding protein. Mol Genet Genomics, 273, 115-122.

Costenaro, L., Grossmann, J.G., Ebel, C. and Maxwell, A. (2005) Small-angle X-ray scattering reveals the solution structure of the full-length DNA gyrase A subunit. Structure, 13, 287-296.

Bates, A.D. and Maxwell, A. (2005) DNA topology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

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